In the voxelization process, AMAPvox tracks every laser pulse through a 3D grid (voxelized space) to the last recorded hit. Several estimators are implemented in order to calculate local transmittance, local attenuation and several other variables of interest. For details about the vozelization theoretical framework please refer to A note on PAD/LAD estimators implemented in AMAPVox

This vignette goes through all the parameters of the voxelization configuration.


Every field has its own jargon, LiDAR is no exception. Throughout the documents we will use different terms

ALS input

Supported formats

LAS/LAZ files can be manipulated by the LAStools software or the LidR R package.

SHT or SHOT format is a text based format, one shot per line, a shot being defined by an origin, a direction, the number of echoes and the echo ranges.

First row is header, columns are separated by space character.

xOrigin yOrigin zOrigin xDirection yDirection zDirection nbEchoes r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7
x0 y0 z0 xd yd zd 1 10

Trajectory file

For LAS and LAZ file, you need to provide a trajectory file.

A trajectory file is a text based format that contains GPS positions of the scanner at a given time. Four columns are expected:

Time of the trajectory file must be consistent with time of the LAS/LAZ file. Scanner positions must be expressed in the same coordinate system as the point cloud prior to any transformation (refer to section Transformation).

AMAPVox will isolate points from the the LAS/LAZ point cloud with same GPS time (the hits from the same laser pulse), and calculates the scanner position with a linear interpolation of the trajectory points. Then AMAPVox can reconstruct the geometry of the pulse.

The text based format is flexible: AMAPVox GUI provides a user interface to identify the columns, the separator, number of lines to skip, etc.


"X" "Y" "Z" "T"
289109.129 586268.068 504.85 308500.003528
289108.973 586267.861 504.846 308500.008528
289108.816 586267.654 504.842 308500.013527
289108.659 586267.447 504.838 308500.018526

ALS consistency checks

AMAPVox can perform preliminary checks on the ALS data, prior to the voxelization.

First, it suggests to discard shots with inconsistent number of echoes or ranks. It check whether a subset of LAS points with same GPS time is consistent in terms of echo rank and number of echoes. Every LAS point of the subset should have a unique echo rank and the same number of echoes.

Secondly, it may discard shots whose echoes are not collinear. The maximal deviation, user defined, is a tolerance in degree to strict collinearity.

Theses checks are not mandatory but inconsistent shots will most likely lead to errors in the voxelization process. It is advised to enable them both in a first run just to make sure the point cloud is “clean” and then disable them since it is time consuming and pointless to perform the checks every time.

Export LAS/LAZ file to SHOT file

The button “Export ALS point cloud to lidar shots” converts LAS/LAZ file into the text based SHT format described above. It could be convenient to do so in terms of performance:

TLS input

Supported formats

Output parameters

Set output folder, output format and output variables to be recorded.

Transformation matrix

A transformation matrix in AMAPVox is a 4x4 matrix that combines translation and rotation movements applied to 3D points (x, y, z).

SOP matrix

System Orientation and Position, TLS only. Each scan from Riscan Project has its own SOP matrix which is included in Riscan Pro project file. If a single scan (*.rxp) is selected, by clicking on the « Open file » button next to POP matrix you can choose the Riscan Pro project file and it will automatically configure the POP matrix and the SOP matrix of that scan.

POP matrix

Project Orientation and Position, TLS only Projection matrix of a Riscan Pro project, this is defined in the project file (.rsp). That matrix is automatically filled when a Riscan Pro project file is open, being read in the file. Using single scan (.rxp) voxelization, it is possible to defined POP matrix, either by opening a matrix file (see file formats in annexe), or by choosing a Riscan Pro project file.

VOP matrix

Voxel Orientation and Position. Optional transformation matrix.

The final transformation matrix is the product of the three matrix. transformation matrix = (VOP.POP).SOP

Voxel space







Either user predefined laser specifications or define custom specifications.